HEMATOLOGICAL TOXICITY IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE LIMPHOBLATIC LEUKEMIC (ALL) IN BANDUNG

Ikeu Nurhidayah

Abstract


Hematological toxicity is one of the side effects of chemotherapy that may occur in children with acute limphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This causes a disruption in blood cell formation, and if not detected early, can cause death. However, this is still not the concern of health workers, especially nurses. The aimed of this study was to know the description of hematological toxicity in children with leukemia who are undergoing chemotherapy. This research was conducted at a hospital in Bandung in December 2016. Designed of this study was descriptive with retrospective approach. This study was conducted on 198 respondents taken from medical records from January to July 2015 by using purposive sampling. Data was analyzed using univariate test. The results showed that the occurrence of hematological toxicity occurred in 64.6% of children with ALL post-chemotherapy, while 35.4% did not experience hematological toxicity. Hematological toxicity that occurs in children with leukemia in this study were leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. Hematological toxicity that occurs can lead prolonged hospitalization and delay the next schedule of chemotherapy, so it is important for nurses to collaborate with physician to perform early detection and monitoring of hematological toxicity in children with leukemia post chemoterapy.

 


Keywords


acute limphoblastic leukemia, children, hematological toxicity.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alcazar, A. M., Enriquez, J. C., Ruiz, C. A., Gutierrez, A. F., & Arangure, J. M. (2013). Alteration of Nutritional Status in Childhood Acute Leukemia. Intech, 277-296.

American Cancer Society. (2015, 04 17). Childhood Leukemia. Retrieved from American Cancer Society: www.cancer.org

American Cancer Society. (2015). Global Cancer Fact & Figures 3nd Edition. Childhood Cancer, 12-13.

American Cancer Society. (2016). Cancer Facts & Figures 2016. Atlanta: American Cancer Society Inc.

Ariawati, K., Windiastuti, E., & Gatot, D. (2007). Toksisitas Kemoterapi Leukemia Limfoblastik Akut pada Fase Induksi dan Profilaksis Susunan Saraf Pusat dengan Metotreksat 1 gram. Sari Pediatri, 252-258.

Arikunto, S. (2014). Prosedur Penelitian; suatu pendekatan praktik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Asim, M., Zaidi, A., Ghafoor, T., & Qureshi, Y. (2011). Death Analysis of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia ; Experience at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc Volume 61 No 7, 666-670.

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. (2007). Pedoman Pengukuran dan Pemeriksaan. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan.

Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. (2013). Riset Kesehatan Dasar (RISKESDAS) tahun 2013. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan;Kementerian Kesehatan.

Baechler, S., Hobbs, R. F., Jacene, H. A., Bochud, F. O., Wahl, R. L., & Sgouros, G. (2010). Predicting Hematologic Toxcity in Patients Undergoing Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-Ilbritumomab Tiuxetan or 131I-Tositumomab. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine Vol 51 No 12, 1878-1884.

Bangun, M. (2012). Analisis Faktor Kejadian Relapse pada anak dengan Leukemia di RSUPN Dr Cipto Mangunkusumo. Depok: Universitas Indonesia.

Beck, M. E. (2012). Ilmu Gizi dan Diet. Yogyakarta: ANDI.

Cancer Agency. (2015). Hematology and Associated Laboratory Test. Clinical Pharmacy Guide : Chemoterapy Assesment and Review 4th Edition, 1-6.

Chu, E., & Sartorelli, A. C. (2014). Kemoterapi Kanker. In B. G. Ktazung, S. B. Masters, & A. J. Trevor, Farmakologi Dasar & Klinik Vol 2 (pp. 1073-1104). Jakarta: EGC.

Dahlan, M. S. (2015). Statistik untuk Kedokteran dan Kesehatan. Jakarta: Epidemiologi Indonesia.

de Sousa, D. W., Ferreira, F. V., Felix, F. H., & Lopes, M. V. (2015). Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children and Adolescents : Prognosis Factors and Analysis of Survival. Brazilian Journal of Hematology and Hemotherapy Volume 37 No 4, 223-229.

Dharma, K. K. (2015). Metodologi Penelitian Keperawatan. Jakarta: Trans Info Media.

Direktorat Bina Gizi dan Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak, K. (2012). Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor:1995/MENKES/SK/XII/2010 tentang Standar Antropometri Penilaian Status Gizi Anak. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI.

Hilden, J. M., Dinndorf, P. A., Meerbaum, S. O., Sather, H., Villaluna, D., Heerema, N. A., . . . Reaman, G. H. (2006). Analysis of Prognostic Factors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Infants : Report on CCG 1953 from the Children's Oncology Group. Blood Volume 108 No 2, 441-451.

Hockenberry, M. J., & Wilson, D. (2011). Wong's Nursing Care of Infant and Children Edisi 9. St.Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Mosby.

Hoffbrand, A. V., & Moss, P. A. (2013). Kapita Selekta Hematologi Edisi 6. Jakarta: EGC.

Hossain, M. J., Xie, l., & McCahan, S. M. (2014 ). Characterization of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Survival Patterns by Age at Diagnosis. Journal of Cancer Epidemiology, 1-9.

Hull, D., & Johnston, D. I. (2008). Dasar-dasar Pediatri. Jakarta: EGC.

Hunger, S. P., & Mullighan, C. G. (2015). Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children. The New England Journal of Medicine, 1541-1552.

Ibagy, A., Silva, D. B., Seiben, J., Winneshoffer, A. P., Costa, T. E., Dacoregio, J. S., . . . Faraco, D. (2013). Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Infants : 20 years of experience. Journal de Pediatria, 64-69.

Isnani, N., Perwitasari, D. A., Andalusia, R., & Mahdi, I. H. (2014). Evaluasi Toksisitas Hematologi Akibat Penggunaan 6-Merkaptopurin dalam Fase Pemeliharaan pada pasien pediatrik Kanker Leukimia Limfoblastik Akut di RS Kanker Dharmais Jakarta. Media Farmasi Vol 11 No 1, 90-97.

Karch, A. M. (2011). Buku Ajar Farmakologi Keperawatan Edisi 2. Jakarta: EGC.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2011). Pedoman Penemuan Dini Kanker Pada Anak. Jakarta: Direktorat Jenderal Pengendalian Penyakit dan Penyehatan Lingkungan, Kementerian Kesehatan RI.

Khan, A. R., Sheikh, M. H., & Intekhab, K. (2006). Pre-existing Malnutrition and Treatment Outcome in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. J Pak Med Assoc, 171-173.

Lanzkowsky, P. (2016). Manual of Pediatric Hematologi and Oncology 6th edition. United States of America: Churchill Lingstone Inc.

Malihi, Z., Kandiah, M., Chan, Y. M., Hosseinzadeh, M., Azad, M. S., & Yeganeh, M. Z. (2013). Nutritional status and quality of life in patient with acute leukemia prior to and after induction chemotherapy in three hospital in Tehran, Iran : a prospective study. Jurnal Of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 123-131.

Metha, A., & Hoffbrand, V. (2012). At a Glance Hematologi Edisi Kedua. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Morrison, C., & Hesdorffer, C. S. (2012). Panduan untuk Penderita Leukemia. Jakarta: Indeks.

National Cancer Institute. (2006). Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 (CTCAE). Bethesda: Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program.

Novrianda, D., Yetti, K., & Agustini, N. (2016). Faktor-faktor Berhubungan dengan Kualitas Hidup Anak Leukemia Limfositik Akut yang Menjalani Kemoterapi. Jurnal Keperawatan Padjadjaran Vol 4 No 1, 1-10.

Orgel, E., Sposto, R., Malvar, J., Seibel, N. L., Ladas, E., Gaynon, P. S., & Freyer, D. R. (2014). Impact on Survival and Toxicity by Duration of Weight Extreme During Treatmebt for Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia : A Report From the Children's Oncology Group. Journal of Clinical Oncology Volume 32 No.13, 1331-1337.

Pertiwi, Niruri, & Ariawati. (2013). Gangguan Hematologi Akibat Kemoterapi pada Anak dengan leukemia limfoblastik akut di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Sanglah. Sanglah, Bali: Universitas Udayana.

Pinontian, E., Mantik, M., & Rampengan, N. (2013). Pengaruh kemoterapi terhadap profil hematologi pada penderita leukemia limfoblastik akut. Manado: Fakultas kedokteran UNSRAT.

Price, S. A., & Wilson, L. M. (2006). Patofisiologi Konsep Klinis Proses-proses Penyakit Edisi 6 Volume 1. Jakarta: EGC.

Pui, C. H., & Evans, W. E. (2006). Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. N Engl J Med 350, 166-178.

Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2015, Juni). Situasi Penyakit Kanker. Buletin Jendela dan Informasi Kesehatan, pp. 1-11.

Pusat Data dan Informasi PERSI. (2012, Maret 05). 4% penderita kanker adalah anak-anak. Retrieved Oktober 5, 2016, from Pusat Data dan Informasi PERSI: www.pdpersi.co.id

Pusat Data dan Informasi PERSI. (2012, Maret 05). 4% penderita kanker adalah anak-anak. Retrieved Oktober 5, 2016, from Pusat Data dan Informasi PERSI: www.pdpersi.co.id

Rahma, Ridha, N. R., & Daud, D. (2016). Hubungan Jenis Kelamin dan Relaps pada Leukemia Limfoblastik Akut-L1 (LLA-L1) Anak. JST Kesehatan Vol 6 No 1, 76-82.

Rasjidi, I. (2007). Kemoterapi Kanker Ginokologi dalam Praktik Sehari-hari. Jakarta: Sagung SEto.

Rasjidi, I. (2013). Buku Ajar Onkologi Klinik. Jakarta: EGC.

Sari, T. T., Windiastuti, E., Cempako, G. R., & Devaera, Y. (2013). Prognosis Leukemia Limfoblastik Akut pada Anak Obes. Sari Pediatri, 58-62.

Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D., & Jemal, A. (2015). Cancer Statistic 2015. CA Cancer J CLIN Volume 65 Number 1 January/Februari, 5-29.

Silawati, T., Ridha, N. R., & Daud, D. (2015). Correlation of Sex and Remission of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia-L1 (ALL-l1) in Children. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences Volume 1 No 2, 11-15.

Simanjorang, C. (2012). Perbedaan Ketahanan Hidup 5 tahun Pasien Leukemia Limfoblastik Akut dan Leukemia Mieloblastik Akut di Rumah Sakit Kanker Dharmais Jakarta Tahun 1997-2008. Depok: Univeristas Indonesia;Tesis.

Sjakti, H. A., Gatot, D., & Windiastuti, E. (2012). Hasil Pengobatan Leukemia Akut pada Anak. Sari Pediatri Vol 14 No 1, 40-45.

Sulastriana, Muda, S., & Jemadi. (2012). Karakteristik Anak yang Menderita Leukemia Akut Rawat Inap di RSUP H.Adam Malik Medan Tahun 2011-2012. Medan: Universitas Sumatera Utara.

Syamsudin. (2011). Buku Ajar Farmakologi Efek Samping Obat. Jakarta: Salemba Medika.

Tanjung, Y. (2011). Berdamai dengan Kanker. Bandung: Mizan Pustaka.

Wong, D. L., Eaton, M. H., Winkelstein, M. L., Wilson, D., & Schwatz, P. (2009). Buku Ajar Keperawatan Pediatrik Volume 2. Jakarta: EGC.

World Child Cancer. (2014). World Child Cancer Annual Report 2014. London: 2014.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Secretary Office :

STIKep PPNI Jawa Barat (Intitute of Nursing Science PPNI West Java)

Ahmad street 4th No. 32 Cicendo, Bandung 40173

West Java - Indonesia

Phone.: +62 22 6121914

Email: info@icdmic.org

Website: icdmic2017.org